Topsoil is the upper layer of native soil. The highest concentration of microorganisms and organic matter can be found in these top two to eight inches of soil; however, the amount of organic matter varies in different soil types. Most of the earth’s biological soil activity can be found in this layer. Topsoil is also the layer in which plants generally concentrate their roots (https://www.maximumyield.com/definition/128/topsoil).

Silica sand mostly consists of quartz. Quartz is the most important sand-forming mineral because it is resistant to both physical and chemical weathering. In general the sand has very poor nutrient content and hence the terraces are largely devoid of vegetation except for shrubs and thin primary forests (https://www.sandatlas.org/quartz-sand/).

Yellow quartz sand was overburden with silica sand. The sand contains silica bearing rocks and minerals such as quartz, quartzite, silica sand together with other varieties of silica like agate, amethyst, jasper, flint etc. are used in a host of industries such as glass, ceramics, foundries, ferro-alloys, abrasives, refractories, ornamentation etc. (Sundararajan, M., 2009).

The results of beneficiation studies reveal that while wet sieving/screening removes majority of these contaminating minerals to give an intermediate product sand, attrition and magnetic separation is required to upgrade the same to grade III glass making sand (Sundararajan, M., 2009).